By Robert B. Ewen
Meant as an higher point undergraduate and/pr graduate point textual content for classes on theories of character, character concept, character, or psychology of character. It presents an advent to the guidelines of crucial character theorist
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Theories of Personality, 6th Edition
So the parents must be careful not to allow either too little or too much gratiﬁcation during any pregenital stage (Fenichel, 1945, pp. 65–66). Fixation may leave too little libido available for mature heterosexuality and result in serious psychological disturbances. However, it is also possible for a personality to be marked by characteristics of a pregenital stage without being classiﬁed as pathological. Oral Characteristics. The oral stage primarily involves the passive incorporation of food, so the ﬁxation of excessive libido at this stage is likely to cause dependence on other people.
PSYCHOANALYSIS 17 stronger opposing desire not to be embarrassed by any out-of-wedlock offspring (Freud, 1901–1965c, pp. 9–11, 14). Forgetting (or arriving late at) an appointment or college examination happens for deﬁnite reasons. The explanation of these parapraxes may be fairly simple, such as anger at the person to be met or fear of failing the exam. The causes of important psychic phenomena, however, are usually numerous (overdetermined) and more complicated. For example, the forgetful student may also be motivated by an unconscious wish to punish parents who are applying too much pressure to excel—and to punish herself because she feels guilty about her strong hostility toward them.
No one who has seen a baby sinking back satiated from the breast and falling asleep with ﬂushed cheeks and a blissful smile can escape the reﬂection that this picture persists as a prototype of the expression of sexual satisfaction in later life. (Freud, 1905/1965d, pp. 76–77; 1940/1969a, p. ) 2. PSYCHOANALYSIS 27 Pleasure is only part of the story, however. Frustration and conﬂict are inevitable because food does not always appear when the child is hungry, and because the child must eventually be weaned from the breast and taught to stop sucking its thumb.
An Introduction to Theories of Personality, 6th Edition by Robert B. Ewen