By Thomas R. Crompton
The presence of poisonous natural and inorganic components in rivers and oceanic sediments is partly because of man-made toxins. Their tracking via chemical research of oceanic, estuarine, and river sediments or of organisms dwelling within the respective ecosystems are of extreme significance. the aim of this booklet is to supply the chemist with all on hand details for the swift improvement and correct undertaking of those equipment of study. Crompton's booklet is the 1st publication which covers all types of samples together with dwelling organisms.
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Extra resources for Analysis of Solids in Natural Waters
Hydrochloric acid. pH Buffered Citrate-Dithionite. 3 g sodium citrate dissolved in deionized water to give a final volume of 1 000 ml) to 5-10 g of peroxide treated sample and heat with occasional swirling for 1 h at 80°C in an oven. 8 g citric acid dissolved in 11 of deionized water, extracted by shaking with 1 g ammonium pyrrolidone diethyldithiocarbamate, 100 ml ethyl propionate, and 50 g sodium dithionite, and re-extracted using only 100 ml of solvent) and hold at 80°C with occasional swirling for 3 h.
The direct residues in both cases were digested with aqua regia. The metals in the various supernatants were determined by plasma emission spectrometry for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, and aluminium and by atomic absorption for cadmium, cobalt, and arsenic. A portion of the sediment was freezedried and dissolved to determine total metal content. Kanda and Taira  presented results from a study on the use of a computercontrolled rapid-scanning echelle ICPAES monochromator to determine major, mi- 46 River and Stream Sediments Time (minutes) 3 5 8 10 200,---~1~--~1---------------~1----~----~ 160 ~ ~---- / 120 ( Conditions 450W Power !!!
A technique for the reduction of chemical interference in lead and nickel determinations was recommended, which consisted of matrix modification by ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ascorbic acid. Rapid heating was recommended for cadmium determinations. Microwave Digestion Techniques. In addition to the bomb digestion techniques mentioned above, the technique of digesting sediments in PTFE lined bombs in a microwave oven has also been discussed [56, 57]. Mahan et al.  carried out sequential extractions of calcium, iron, chromium, manganese, lead, and zinc and obtained comparable results to conventional techniques in less time.
Analysis of Solids in Natural Waters by Thomas R. Crompton